Improving the reading comprehension of primary-school students at frustration-level reading through the paraphrasing strategy training: A multiple-probe design study

Main Article Content

İlhan İlter


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of “RAP” [RAP is a three-step strategy: Read-Ask-Put], a paraphrasing cognitive strategy training, associated with a self-regulatory model, on the development of reading comprehension among fourth-grade students. All participants were selected on the basis of initial reading comprehension measures and consisted of three male students who were identified as being at a frustration-level reading. A multiple-probe design across participants was used. As a result, the participants showed significant improvements in the text recall and an enhancement their reading comprehension skills. Two of the participants were able to maintain their improvements and generalized each step of the strategy in the “RAP” to different content-area texts. The remaining participant made remarkable improvements with respect to the baseline phase, but did not maintain and generalize the strategy. Suggestions were made for improving future research investigating the effects of RAP paraphrasing strategy.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
İLTER, İlhan. Improving the reading comprehension of primary-school students at frustration-level reading through the paraphrasing strategy training: A multiple-probe design study. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 147-161, oct. 2017. ISSN 1307-9298. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 oct. 2017.


Akyol, H. (2011). Türkçe öğretim yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık
Alfassi, M. (2004). Reading to learn: Effects of combined strategy instruction on high-school students. Journal of Educational Research, 97, 171-184
Berkeley, S. (2007). Reading comprehension instruction for students with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities: Vol. 20, International perspectives (pp. 79–99). Oxford, UK: Elsevier
Best, R. M., Rowe, M., Ozuru, Y., & McNamara, D. S. (2005). Deep-level comprehension of science texts: The role of the reader and the text. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 65–83
Biancarosa, C., & Snow, C. E. (2006). Reading next: A vision for action and research in middle and high-school literacy. A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Billingsley, F., White, O. R., Munson, R. (1980). Procedural reliability: A rationale and an example. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 229-241
Cavkaytar, S. (2010). İlköğretimde yazılı anlatım becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde yazma süreci modelinden yararlanma. Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), 133-139
Dağ, N. (2010). Okuma güçlüğünün giderilmesinde 3P metodu ile boşluk tamamlama (Cloze) tekniğinin kullanımı üzerine bir çalışma. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 11(1), 63-74
Deshler, D. D., & Lenz, B.K. (1989). The strategies instructional approach. International journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 36, 203-224
Dickens, R. H., & Meisinger, E. B. (2016). Examining the effects of skill level and reading modality on reading comprehension. Reading Psychology, 37(2), 318-337
Ellis, E. S., & Graves, A. W. (1990). Teaching rural students with learning disabilities: A paraphrasing strategy to increase comprehension of main ideas. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 10(2), 2-10
Fordham, N. W., Wellman, D., & Sandmann, A. (2002). Taming the text: Engaging and supporting students in social studies readings. Social Studies, 93,149-159
Gickling, E. E. & Thompson, V. P. (1985). A personal view of curriculum-based assessment. Exceptional Children, 52, 205–218
Grant, P. (1978). Using the cloze procedure as an instructional device: What the literature says. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Convention of the International Reading Association, Houston, TX.
Hagaman, J. L., & Reid, R. (2008). The effects of the paraphrasing strategy on the reading comprehension of middle school students at risk for failure in reading. Remedial and Special Education, 29, 222–234
Hagaman, J. L., Casey, K. J., & Reid, R. (2012). The effects of the paraphrasing strategy on the reading comprehension of young students. Remedial and Special Education, 33(2), 110-123
Hagaman, J. L., Casey, K. J., & Reid, R. (2016). Paraphrasing strategy instruction for struggling readers: Preventing school failure. Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 60(1), 43-52
Hagaman, J. L., Luschen, K. & Reid. R. (2010). The RAP on reading comprehension. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(1), 22-29
Halladay, J. L. (2012). Revisiting key assumptions of the reading level framework. The Reading Teacher, 66(1), 53-62
Ilter, I. (2017). Teaching word meanings to students at different reading ability: A controlled assessment of the contextual-based vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension. Education and Science, 42(190), 437-463
Jennings, J. H., Caldwell, J., & Lerner, J. W. (2006). Reading problems: Assessment and teaching strategies (5th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Education
Katims, D. S., & Harris, S. (1997). Improving the reading comprehension of middle-school students in inclusive classrooms. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 41, 116-123
Kletzien, S. B. (2009). Paraphrasing: An effective comprehension strategy. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 73-77
Kuhn, M., & Stalh, A. (1998). Teaching children to learn word meanings from context: A synthesis and some questions. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(1), 119-138
Kurt, B. (2016). Climate change. TUBITAK Science Books, 39 Ankara: Nurol Matbaacılık
Lauterbach, S.L. & Bender, W.N. (1995). Cognitive strategy ınstruction for reading comprehension: a success for high-school freshman. The High School Journal. 79, 58-64
Lee, S. W., & Von-Colln, T. (2003). The effect of instruction in the paraphrasing strategy on reading fluency and comprehension. (ERIC Number: ED476287)
Leslie, L., & Caldwell, J. A. (2011). Qualitative Reading Inventory (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Loxterman, J. A., Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (1994). The effects of thinking aloud during reading on students' comprehension of more or less coherent text. Reading Research Quarterly, 29(4), 353-367.
Macdonald-Ross, M., & Scott, B. (1995). Results of the survey of OU students' reading skills. Text and Readers Programme: Technical Report 3, Milton Keynes: Institute of Educational Technology, Open University
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Graetz, J. E. (2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 103–116
McGuire, B. (2013). Natural disasters (Trans. Said Vapur). TUBITAK Science Books, 442 Ankara: Nurol Matbaacılık
McKenna, M. C., & Stahl, K. A. D. (2009). Assessment for reading instruction. Guilford Publications
McLeod, J., & Anderson, J. (1970). An approach to assessment of reading ability through information transmission. Journal of Reading Behavior, 2, 116–143.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2 ed. J. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Ministry of National Education. (2016a). Sosyal Bilgiler - 4 Ders ve Öğrenci Çalışma Kitabı. Ankara: Koza Yayınları
Ministry of National Education. (2016b). İlkokul Fen Bilimleri 4. sınıf Ders Kitabı (1. ve 2. Kitap). Ankara: MEB Yayınları Ders Kitapları Dizisi
Monte-Sano, C. (2011). Beyond reading comprehension and summary: Learning to read and write in history by focusing on evidence, perspective, and interpretation. Curriculum Inquiry, 41(2), 212-249.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle
Özdemir, İ. (2015). Açımlama stratejisi öğretiminin öğrencilerin okuduğunu anlama becerilerine etkisi. Turkish Journal, 1(2), 1-11
Palincsar, A.S., & Brown, A.L. (1985). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(1), 17-175
Palumbo, A., & Loiacono, V. (2009). Understanding the causes of intermediate and middle school comprehension problems. International Journal of Special Education, 24(1), 75-81
Parker, R. I., Vannest, K. J., & Brown, L. (2009). The improvement rate difference for single case research. Exceptional Children, 75, 135–150
Pressley, M. (2002). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching (2nd ed.). New York: Guildford Press
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C. (1995). Advanced educational psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace
Rachel, H. Dickens & Elizabeth B. Meisinger (2017). Examining the effects of reading modality and passage genre on reading comprehension in middle school students. Reading Psychology, 38(3), 321-347
Rasinski, T. (1999). Exploring a method for estimating independent, instructional and frustration reading rates. Reading Psychology, 20, 61–69
Rasinski, T. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 704-706
Rasinski, T. (2012). Why reading fluency should be hot! The Reading Teacher, 65 (8), 516-522
Reid, R., Lienemann, T. O., & Hagaman, J. L. (2013). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Press
Rosenshine, B., Meister, C. & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 181-221
Rubin, J. (2011). Organizing and evaluating results from multiple reading assessments. The Reading Teacher, 64(8), 606-611
Şahindokuyucu, A. (2006). A study of cloze and multiple-choice tests for measuring reading comprehension of preparatory students. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University
Schumaker, J.B., Deshler, D.D., & Ellis, E.S. (1986). Intervention issues related to the education of LD adolescents. In J.K. Torgeson & B.Y.L. Wong (Eds.), Learning disabilities: Some new perspectives. New York: Academic Press.
Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching disciplinary literacy to adolescents: Rethinking content-area literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 40-59
Smagorinsky, P. (2001). If meaning is constructed what’s it made from? Toward a cultural theory of reading. Review of Educational Research, 71, 133–169
Snyder, B., & Pressley, M. (1995). Introduction to cognitive strategy instruction. In M. Pressley & V. Woloshyn (Eds.), Cognitive strategy instruction that really improves children’s academic performance (pp. 1-18). Cambridge, MA: Brookline
Taraban, R., Rynearson, K. & Kerr, M. (2000). College students’ academıc performance and self-reports of comprehension strategy use. Reading Psychology, 21(4), 283-308
Tekin-İftar, E. & Kırcaali-İftar, G. (2016). Özel eğitimde yanlışsız öğretim yöntemleri. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım
Tomesen, M., & Aarnoutse, C. (1998). Effects of an instructional programme for deriving word meanings 1. Educational Studies, 24(1), 107-128
Toste, J. R., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2013). Supporting struggling readers in high school. In R. T. Boon & V. G. Spencer (Eds.), Adolescent literacy (pp. 79–91). Baltimore, MD: Brookes
Ulusoy, M. (2009). Using cloze test to measure students’ reading levels and readability of texts. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 7(1), 105-126
Ulusoy, M., & Dedeoğlu, H. (2011). Content-area reading and writing: Practices and beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(4), 1-17
Vacca, R. T., Vacca, J. L., & Mraz, M. E. (2011). Content-area reading: Literacy and learning across the curriculum (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon
Vacca, R.T., & Vacca, J.L. (2008). Content-area reading: Literacy and learning across the curriculum (9th ed. pp. 56-59). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Van-Den Broek, P., Kendeou, P., Lousberg, S., & Visser, G. (2011). Preparing for reading comprehension: Fostering text comprehension skills in preschool and early elementary school children. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 259-268
Vassaf, B. H. (2003). Öğrenme yetersizliği. Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları
Watson, S. M. R., Gable, R. A., Gear, S. B., & Hughes, K. C. (2012). Evidence-based strategies for improving the reading comprehension of secondary students: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27, 79–89
Westfall, R. S. (2005). Story of energy (7. ed.) (Trans. Tüysüzoğlu, B. B). TUBITAK Science Books, 86, Ankara: Nurol Matbaacılık
Williams, J. P. (2002). Reading comprehension strategies and teacher preparation. In A. Farstrup & J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp. 243-260). Newark, DE: International Reading Association
Williams, J. P. (2005). Instruction in reading comprehension for primary-grade students: A focus on text structure. Journal of Special Education, 39, 6-18
Wolf, M. M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 11(2), 203-214
Worthy, J., & Broaddus, K. (2001). Fluency beyond the primary grades: From group performance to silent, independent reading. The Reading Teacher, 55(4), 334-343
Zutell, J., & Rasinski, T. V. (1991). Training teachers to attend to their students’ oral reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 211-217