Main Article Content
Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature review. Items, then, were formulated as statements, to which the teachers could respond on a Likert-scale. In line with the expert and teacher opinions, twenty statements were removed from the original pool and some statements were reformulated. The latest version of the scale consisted of 21 statements. The participants were preschool teacher (N=169) from Istanbul. Empirical testing at item and scale level showed that T-SRL is a reliable and a valid instrument to assess preschool teachers’ classroom practices promoting self-regulated learning of their children at the age of 3-6.
Ananiadou, K. and Claro, M. (2009). 21st century skills and competences for new millennium learners in OECD countries. Retrieved from Paper Prepared for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/21st-century-skills-and-competences-for-new-millennium-learners-in-oecd-countries_218525261154.
Annevirta, T., & Vauras, M. (2006). Developmental changes of metacognitive skill in elementary school children. Journal of Experimental Education, 74, 197–225.
Berk, L.E., Mann, T.D., & Ogan, A.T. (2006). Make-believe play: Wellspring for the development of self-regulation. In D.G. Singer, R. Golinkoff, & K. Hirsh-Pasek (Eds.), Play = learning: How play motivates and enhances children’s cognitive and social-emotional growth (pp. 74 – 100). New York: Oxford University Press.
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy abilities in kindergarten. Child Development, 78, 647–663.
Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the mind: the Vygotskian approach to early childhood education (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7(2), 151–86.
Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of educational research, 65(3), 245-281.
Denham, S. A., Warren-Khot, H. K., Bassett, H. H., Wyatt, T., & Perna, A. (2012). Factor structure of self-regulation in preschoolers: Testing models of a field-based assessment for predicting early school readiness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 386-404.
Diamond, A., Barnett, W.S., Thomas, J., & Munro. S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318, 1387-1388.
Dinsmore, D. L., Alexander, P. A., & Loughlin, S. M. (2008). Focusing the conceptual lens on metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20(4), 391-409.
Hamman, D., Berthelot, J., Saia, J., & Crowley, E. (2000). Teachers' coaching of learning and its relation to students' strategic learning. Journal of Educational psychology, 92(2), 342.
Istomina, Z. M. (1975). The development of voluntary memory in preschool age children. Social Psychology,13, 5–64.
Karakelle, S., & Saraç, S.(2007). Çocuklar için üst bilişsel farkındalık ölçeği (ÜBFÖ-Ç) A ve B formlari: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması.Türk Psikoloji Yazilari, 10(20), 85-103.
Lombaerts, K., Engels, N., & Athanasou, J. (2007). Development and validation of the self-regulated learning inventory for teachers. Perspectives in Education, 25(4), 29-47.
McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 471 – 490.
Ministry of Education (2014). National education statistics 2013-2014. Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı.
Moore, R. W., & Foy, R. L. H. (1997). The scientific attitude inventory: A revision (SAI II). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(4), 327-336.
Onat, O., & Otrar M. (2010). Bilişsel duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçeye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları [Adaptation of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire to Turkish: Validity and reliability studies], Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 31, 123-143.
Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational psychologist, 36(2), 89-101.
Perry, N. E. (1998). Young children’s self-regulated learning and contexts that support it. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 715–729.
Perry, N., Phillips, L., & Dowler, J. (2004). Examining features of tasks and their potential to promote self-regulated learning. The Teachers College Record,106(9), 1854-1878.
Perry, N. E., & VandeKamp, K. O. (2000). Creating classroom contexts that support young children’s development of self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 821–843.
Perry, N. E., & Winne, P. H. (2006). Learning from learning kits: gStudy traces of students’ self-regulated engagements with computerized content. Educational Psychology Review, 18(3), 211-228.
Robson, S. (2010). Self-regulation and metacognition in young children's selfinitiated play and Reflective Dialogue. International Journal of Early Years Education, 18(3), 227-241.
Rychen, D. S. & Salaganik, L. H. (2003). Introduction. In D. S. Rychen, & L. H. Salaganik (Eds.), Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society (pp. 1-12). Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children's self-efficacy and self-regulation of reading and writing through modeling. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23(1), 7-25.
Sperling, R.A., R.T. Walls, and Hill L. A. (2000). Early relationships among self-regulatory constructs: Theory of mind and pre-school children’s problem solving. Child Study Journal 30(4), 233-252.
Veenman, M. V. J. (2005). The assessment of metacognitive skills: What can be learned from multi-method designs. In C. Artelt, & B. Moschner (Eds.), Lernstrategien und metakognition: Implikationen für forschung und praxis, (pp. 1-30). Berlin: Waxmann.
Whitebread, D., Bingham, S., Grau, V., Pino Pasternak, D., & Sangster, C. (2007). Development of metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children: The role of collaborative and peer-assisted learning. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 3, 433–455.
Whitebread, D., & Coltman, P. (2010) Aspects of pedagogy supporting metacognition and mathematical learning in young children; evidence from an observational study. ZDM The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 42 (2), 163-178.
Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Pino Pasternak, D., Sangster, C., Grau, V., Bingham, S., et al. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children. Metacognition and Learning, 4(1), 63–85.
Winne, P. H. (1997). Experimenting to bootstrap self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 397-410.
Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In P. Pintrich, M. Boekaerts, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, (pp. 531-566). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Wolters, C. A. (2010). Self-regulated learning and the 21st century competencies. Retrieved from Paper Prepared for the NRC Planning Meeting on 21st Century Competencies: http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/Self_Regulated_Learning__21st_Century_Competencies.pdf
Zimmerman BJ (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329-339.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.
Zimmerman BJ 1998. Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk, & B. J. Zimmerman, (eds). Self-regulated learning. From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp.1–10). New York: Guilford Press.
Zimmerman BJ (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183.