Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.
Allington, R. L. (1980). Teacher interruption behaviors during primary grade oral reading. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 72, 371-377.
Allington, R. L. (1983). The reading instruction provided readers of differing abilities. Elementary
School Journal, 83, 548-559.
Allington, R. L. (1984). Content coverage and contextual reading in reading groups. Journal of Reading
Behavior, 16(1), 85-96.
Allington, R. L. (2009). What really matters in response to intervention: Research-based designs.
Allington, R. L., McCuiston, K., & Billen, M. (in press). What research says about text complexity and
learning to read. Reading Teacher.
Allington, R. L., & McGill-Franzen, M. (1989). School response to reading failure: Chapter 1 and special
education students in grades 2, 4, & 8. Elementary School Journal, 89(5), 529-542.
Brenner, D., & Hiebert, E. H. (2010). If I follow the teachers' editions, isn't that enough? Analyzing
reading volume in six core reading programs. Elementary School Journal, 110(3), 347-363.
Cipielewski, J., & Stanovich, K. E. (1992). Predicting growth in reading ability from children's exposure
to print. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 54(1), 74-89.
Clay, M. M. (1969). Reading errors and self-correction behaviour. British Journal of Educational
Psychology, 37(1), 47-56.
Dahl, P. R., & Samuels, S. J. (1977). An experimental program for teaching high-speed word recognition
and comprehension skills. In J. Button, T. Lovitt & T. Rowland (Eds.), Communications research in
learning disabilities and mental retardation. (pp. 33-65). Baltimore: University Park Press.
Evans, M. D. R., Kelley, J., Sikora, J., & Treiman, D. J. (2010). Family scholarly culture and educational
success: Books and schooling in 27 nations. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 28(2),
Foorman, B. R., Schatschneider, C., Eakins, M. N., Fletcher, J. M., Moats, L., & Francis, D. J. (2006). The
impact of instructional practices in grades 1 and 2 on reading and spelling achievement in high
poverty schools. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(1), 1-29.
Hargis, C. (2006). Setting standards: An exercise in futility? Phi Delta Kappan, 87(5), 393-395.
Hiebert, E. H. (1983). An examination of ability grouping for reading instruction. Reading Research
Quarterly, 18, 231-255.
Hoffman, J. V., & Clements, R. (1984). Reading miscues and teacher verbal feedback. Elementary School
Journal, 84(4), 423-439.
Homan, S., Klesius, P., & Hite, S. (1993). Effects of repeated readings and non-repetitive strategies on
students' fluency and comprehension. Journal of Educational Research, 87(1), 94-99.
Krashen, S. (2011). Free voluntary reading. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
Kuhn, M. R. (2005). A comparative study of small group fluency instruction. Reading Psychology, 26(2),
Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P., Morris, R. D., Morrow, L. M., Woo, D., Meisinger, B., et al. (2006).
Teaching children to become fluent and automatic readers. Journal of Literacy Research 38(4), 357-
Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading
fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230-
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 95(1), 3-21.
LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.
Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.
Lewis, M., & Samuels, S. J. (2005). Read more, read better? A meta-analysis of the literature on the
relationship between exposure to reading and reading achievement. University of Minnesota.
Lindsay, J. J. (2013). Impacts of interventions that increase children’s access to print material. In R. L.
Allington & A. McGill-Franzen (Eds.), Summer reading: Closing the rich/poor reading achievement
gap. (pp. 20-38). New York: Teachers College Press.
Logan, G. D. (1988). Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review, 95(4), 492-
McQuillan, J., & Au, J. (2001). The effect of print access on reading frequency. Reading Psychology,
Mol, S. E., & Bus, A. G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to
early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 267-296.
Morgan, P. L., Sideridis, G., & Hua, Y. (2012). Initial and over-time effects of fluency interventions for
students with or at risk for disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 46(2), 94-116.
National Endowment for the Arts (2007). To read or not to read: A question of national consequence.
Washington, DC: Office of Research and Analysis.
National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the
scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Downloaded
Neuman, S. B., & Celano, D. C. (2012). Giving our children a fighting chance: Poverty, illiteracy, and the
development of information capital. New York: Teachers College Press.
Pribesh, S., Gavigan, K., & Dickinson, G. (2011). The access gap: Poverty and characteristics of school
library media centers. Library Quarterly, 81, 143-160.
Rasinski, T., Rikli, A., & Johnston, S. (2009). Reading fluency: More than automaticity? More than a
concern for the primary grades? Literacy Research and Instruction, 48(4), 350-361.
Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated reading. Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.
Schreiber, P. A. (1991). Understanding prosody's role in reading acquisition. Theory into Practice, 30(3),
Schubert, F., & Becker, R. (2010). Social inequality of reading literacy: A longitudinal analysis with crosssectional
data of PIRLS 2001 and PISA 2000 with the pairwise matching procedure. Research in
Social Stratification and Mobility, 29(1), 109-133.
Schwanenflugel, P. J., Kuhn, M. R., Morris, R. D., Morrow, L. M., Meisinger, E. B., Woo, D. G., et al. (2009).
Insights into fluency instruction: Short- and long-term effects of two reading programs. Literacy
Research and Instruction, 48(4), 318-336.
Schwanenflugel, P. J., Meisinger, E. B., Wisenbaker, J. M., Kuhn, M. R., Strauss, G. P., & Morris, R. D.
(2006). Becoming a fluent and automatic reader in the early elementary school years. Reading
Research Quarterly, 41(4), 496-523.
Shany, M. T., & Biemiller, A. (1995). Assisted reading practice: Effects on performance for poor readers
in grades 3 and 4. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(3), 382-395.
Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition.
Share, D. L. (2004). Orthographic learning at a glance: On the time course and development onset of
self-teaching. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87(4), 267-298.
Swanborn, M. S. L., & DeGlopper, K. (1999). Incidental word learning while reading: A meta-analysis.
Review of Educational Research, 69(3), 261-286.
Therrien, W. J. (2003). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A metaanalysis.
Remedial and Special Education, 25(4), 252-261.
Topping, K. J., Samuels, S. J., & Paul, T. (2007). Does practice make perfect? Independent reading
quantity, quality and student achievement. Learning and Instruction, 17, 253-264.
Torgesen, J. K., & Hudson, R. F. (2006). Reading fluency: Critical issues for struggling readers. In S. J.
Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about fluency instruction. (pp. 130-158).
Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Vadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Peyton, J. A. (2005). Relative effectiveness of reading practice or wordlevel
instruction in supplemental tutoring: How text matters. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(4),
Vaughn, S., Moody, S. W., & Schumm, J. S. (1998). Broken promises: Reading instruction in the resource
room. Exceptional Children, 64, 211-225.
Ysseldyke, J. E., Algozzine, R., Shinn, M. R., & McGue, M. (1982). Similarities and differences between
low achievers and students classified as learning disabled. Journal of Special Education, 16(1), 73-
Ysseldyke, J. E., O'Sullivan, P. J., Thurlow, M. L., & Christenson, S. L. (1989). Qualitative differences in
reading and math instruction received by handicapped students. Remedial and Special Education,